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Quantum key growing, often called quantum cryptography or quantum key distribution, is a method using some properties of quantum mechanics to create a secret shared cryptography key even if an eavesdropper has access to unlimited computational power. A vital but often neglected part of the method is unconditionally secure message authentication. This thesis examines the security aspects of authentication in quantum key growing. Important concepts are formalized as Python program source code, a comparison between quantum key growing and a classical system using trusted couriers is included, and the chain rule of entropy is generalized to any Rényi entropy. Finally and most importantly, a security flaw is identified which makes the probability to eavesdrop on the system undetected approach unity as the system is in use for a long time, and a solution to this problem is provided.