See also the history sections for Denmark and
Until 1360 Scania was, without doubts, a Danish land, in the sense
that Scanians were Danes, however not always under a united King of
the Danes. After 1360 Denmark's kings had a firm grip of Scania until
the province was ceeded to Sweden in 1658.
King Olav Tryggvesson lands in Scania and wins a
(circa) In the naval battle at Svolder (probably
the island Hven or Saltholm) King Svend Tveskæg is allied with
King Olof Skötkonung. They defeat Olav Tryggvesson's ships.
The border between Scania and Sweden is marked by six raised
stones between Halland & Västergötland; Scania proper &
Småland; and between Blekinge & Småland.
During early 11th century the town of Lund is made to a center of
the eastern half of King Canut the Great's realm.
(circa) Canute the Great defeats the attacking
allies King Amund Jakob from Sweden and King Olav ("the Saint")
from Norway at a big naval battle at the Helge Å estuary.
As the Danes lose the realm in England Denmark
is split under different kings until 1047 when Svend
Estridsen from Scania ascends to the throne.
King Svend Estridsen lets build a church
in Dalby (the oldest remaining stone church on the Scandinavian
peninsula), and Scania is
divided in two bishoprics: Lund and Dalby. However, in 1067
the bishoprics are united under bishop Egino in Dalby, who after
some years move the see to Lund.
The Bishop in Bremen and the Bishop in Canterbury have fought for
the dominance over Denmark, and as a move in this complicated
fight rich funds are donated by the king for a cathedral in Lund.
The cathedral school is opened in 1086. The school has been
in function ever since.
With the first arch-bishop of Lund, Scandinavia was
made a separate church province, no longer belonging to Hamburg.
King Sigurd Jorsalafarare ("Jerusalem traveler") of
Norway pesters eastern Scania and put the town Tumathorp to
A Danish Civil War culminates in the battle at
Fotevik, close to Skanör. Lund is made residence of the victor
King Erik Emune. After he has been assassinated Scania is again
for some years separated from Denmark, until 1142 when King
Erik Lam of Zealand and Jutland defeats King Oluf Haraldsen of
A peasant rebellion ends in defeat in the battle at
Dösjöbro. Two years later the Scanians are again defeated in the battle
at Höje Å, as the newly elected king of Jutland and Zealand (Knud VI
"King of the Wends") defeats the Scanian King Harald Olufsen.
Estonians (pirates or vikings) pesters Blekinge.
The Scanian Law is written down. 50 years
later it's also transcribed to runes.
A peasant rebellion against the "plough-tax" is
successful. The Scanians are exempted from the tax.
The Swedish King Magnus Ladulås pesters Halland
and northern Scania proper. In the following four hundred years
Scania will endure at least two dozens war.
The Scanian nobility (alternatively the Thing in Lund) had in
the beginning of the 1330s chosen the young Magnus Eriksson to be
king also for the Scanian provinces, as also Gotland had done,
after his regents had promised to pay Count Johan of Holstein to
whom Scania was pawned. At that time Magnus Eriksson was the
under-age king of both Norway and Sweden.
During conflicts between King Magnus and his
son Prince Erik Scania is again pestered by war and plundering
which ends as King Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark re-conquests
Scania in 1360. The Swedish King Albrecht of Mecklenburg will
however launch several attacks on Scania in the hope to regain the
After this the Thing in Lund didn't cause more disturbance in the
kingdom of Denmark.
Sort of a proto-University, a Studium
Generale, is founded at a Franciscan Convent in Lund. It
disappears, however, at the Reformation.
King Karl Knutsson (Bonde) of Sweden pesters
Scania with the largest army Sweden yet had raised.
Grevefejden: Civil War between
pro-Lutherans and anti-Lutherans. The mayors of Malmö and
Copenhagen come out on the losing end together with the Hanseatic
town of Lübeck.
Reformation follows in 1536.
When Erik XIV ascends on the Swedish throne
the attacks on Scania with massacres and burned towns are
Tycho Brahe publishes the book "De nova stella"
and becomes famous. In 1576 he is entfeofed with the island Hven
where he erects the observatory Uranienborg.
As Sweden has gained much prestige during the
30-years' War - and Denmark has lost some. Sweden attacks in
1644, and Halland is lost to the Swedes (on thirty years). As
Denmark try to take revenge the result is disastrous. The Swedes
reach Zealand via Jutland and the islands, and Denmark is
threatened by eradication. In the peace Scania is ceded to Sweden
(despite Scania being the only part of Denmark proper free from
The university in Lund is founded.
The Scanians (not the least the
Snapphanar - i.e. guerilla units) and the
Danish Army make several attempts to re-unite Scania with Denmark.
The mission in 1676-1680 was military well prepared, however
without support from the Great Powers of Europe (France in
particular) why Denmark was forced to peace without territorial
gains - despite a good position on the battle field.
The Swedish policy is a strict Swedification, in conflict with the
peace treaties which guarantee Scania to keep her laws and
nationality. Part by part is Scania incorporated in the Swedish
realm. De jure this was accomplished in 1721, however certain
legal and cultural differences between Scania and the rest of
Sweden would remain for centuries.
1811, June 15th
After a year of unrest among the
Scanian peasants a thousand peasants had arrived at
Klågerup's castle in western Scania to protest
against the cruel noble master and against the calling up of new
troops for the attack on Norway (with the failed wars of 1808/1809 in
fresh memory, when the hastily summoned and barely trained soldiers
died from hunger and freezing due to bad supply of food and tents).
The threatening mob was driven away from the manor by military troops,
and thereby 29 peasants were killed ( - this is the official
figure, rumors say that most corpses had been taken care of by friends
and relatives before the rest was counted by the military).
The prohibition of books in Danish (or
Scanian) is abolished.
The flag used by the Arch-bishop during
medieval times is re-invented and introduced as the National Flag
The Scanian flag is red with yellow ribbons and is more square than
both the Danish and Swedish ones. The measurements are based on the
old (1748-1926) Danish measures for its flag. They are 3-1-4.5 in
length and 3-1-3 in height.
The flag is most likely (though not proved) from the archbishop in Lund
Andreas Sunesen (1201-1228) who then was archbishop for all of Norden.
(But the country diocese ("landestiftet") where the Scanian law was in
force was Skåneland). He got the flag pattern from (and used it on) a
crusade in Latvia and a stay in Riga. The fact that the flag is like a
Danish-Swedish combination with what could have been borrowed colors
from these flags is a coincidence. The Swedish flag is younger.
The Scanian flag itself was probably pretty much forgotten (though
other yellow-red symbols existed) until Mathias and Martin Weibull
"reinvented" it around the end of the last century. First, it was used
very sparingly but the use has grown and does so even today. But only
outside one of the Scanian town halls, in Ystad, is the Scanian flag
flying so far. It is more frequently used by the common people,
depending on area in Scania. The Swedish flag is still more common in
As late as in March 1992, the flag was registered in the Scandinavian
Roll of Armor. At the same time, the Scanian coat of arms was
registered: a golden panther on red background with hind legs like a
lion and front legs like an eagle. The day of the Scanian flag is the
third Sunday in July.
Sources: "Skånelands flagga", Sven-Olle R Olsson, 1993
Newspaper articles from "Sydsvenska Dagbladet", 1992-95
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