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Scanian history (the s.c.nordic FAQ)
nordic flags
The home pages for the Usenet newsgroup soc.culture.nordic
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Scanian history

 

7.6.3 Some marks in history

See also the history sections for Denmark and Sweden. Until 1360 Scania was, without doubts, a Danish land, in the sense that Scanians were Danes, however not always under a united King of the Danes. After 1360 Denmark's kings had a firm grip of Scania until the province was ceeded to Sweden in 1658.
995
King Olav Tryggvesson lands in Scania and wins a battle.

1000
(circa) In the naval battle at Svolder (probably the island Hven or Saltholm) King Svend Tveskæg is allied with King Olof Skötkonung. They defeat Olav Tryggvesson's ships.

The border between Scania and Sweden is marked by six raised stones between Halland & Västergötland; Scania proper & Småland; and between Blekinge & Småland.

During early 11th century the town of Lund is made to a center of the eastern half of King Canut the Great's realm.

1026
(circa) Canute the Great defeats the attacking allies King Amund Jakob from Sweden and King Olav ("the Saint") from Norway at a big naval battle at the Helge Å estuary.

1042
As the Danes lose the realm in England Denmark is split under different kings until 1047 when Svend Estridsen from Scania ascends to the throne.

1060
King Svend Estridsen lets build a church in Dalby (the oldest remaining stone church on the Scandinavian peninsula), and Scania is divided in two bishoprics: Lund and Dalby. However, in 1067 the bishoprics are united under bishop Egino in Dalby, who after some years move the see to Lund.

1080
The Bishop in Bremen and the Bishop in Canterbury have fought for the dominance over Denmark, and as a move in this complicated fight rich funds are donated by the king for a cathedral in Lund. The cathedral school is opened in 1086. The school has been in function ever since.

1104
With the first arch-bishop of Lund, Scandinavia was made a separate church province, no longer belonging to Hamburg.

1124
King Sigurd Jorsalafarare ("Jerusalem traveler") of Norway pesters eastern Scania and put the town Tumathorp to fire.

1134
A Danish Civil War culminates in the battle at Fotevik, close to Skanör. Lund is made residence of the victor King Erik Emune. After he has been assassinated Scania is again for some years separated from Denmark, until 1142 when King Erik Lam of Zealand and Jutland defeats King Oluf Haraldsen of Scania.

1180
A peasant rebellion ends in defeat in the battle at Dösjöbro. Two years later the Scanians are again defeated in the battle at Höje Å, as the newly elected king of Jutland and Zealand (Knud VI "King of the Wends") defeats the Scanian King Harald Olufsen.

1202
Estonians (pirates or vikings) pesters Blekinge.

1202-1210
The Scanian Law is written down. 50 years later it's also transcribed to runes.

1249
A peasant rebellion against the "plough-tax" is successful. The Scanians are exempted from the tax.

1276
The Swedish King Magnus Ladulås pesters Halland and northern Scania proper. In the following four hundred years Scania will endure at least two dozens war.

1332
The Scanian nobility (alternatively the Thing in Lund) had in the beginning of the 1330s chosen the young Magnus Eriksson to be king also for the Scanian provinces, as also Gotland had done, after his regents had promised to pay Count Johan of Holstein to whom Scania was pawned. At that time Magnus Eriksson was the under-age king of both Norway and Sweden.

1356-1360
During conflicts between King Magnus and his son Prince Erik Scania is again pestered by war and plundering which ends as King Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark re-conquests Scania in 1360. The Swedish King Albrecht of Mecklenburg will however launch several attacks on Scania in the hope to regain the land.

After this the Thing in Lund didn't cause more disturbance in the kingdom of Denmark.

1425
Sort of a proto-University, a Studium Generale, is founded at a Franciscan Convent in Lund. It disappears, however, at the Reformation.

1452
King Karl Knutsson (Bonde) of Sweden pesters Scania with the largest army Sweden yet had raised.

1534-36
Grevefejden: Civil War between pro-Lutherans and anti-Lutherans. The mayors of Malmö and Copenhagen come out on the losing end together with the Hanseatic town of Lübeck.

Reformation follows in 1536.

1560-1570
When Erik XIV ascends on the Swedish throne the attacks on Scania with massacres and burned towns are intensified.

1573
Tycho Brahe publishes the book "De nova stella" and becomes famous. In 1576 he is entfeofed with the island Hven where he erects the observatory Uranienborg.

1644-1660
As Sweden has gained much prestige during the 30-years' War - and Denmark has lost some. Sweden attacks in 1644, and Halland is lost to the Swedes (on thirty years). As Denmark try to take revenge the result is disastrous. The Swedes reach Zealand via Jutland and the islands, and Denmark is threatened by eradication. In the peace Scania is ceded to Sweden (despite Scania being the only part of Denmark proper free from Swedish troops).

1668
The university in Lund is founded.

1676-1721
The Scanians (not the least the Snapphanar - i.e. guerilla units) and the Danish Army make several attempts to re-unite Scania with Denmark. The mission in 1676-1680 was military well prepared, however without support from the Great Powers of Europe (France in particular) why Denmark was forced to peace without territorial gains - despite a good position on the battle field.

The Swedish policy is a strict Swedification, in conflict with the peace treaties which guarantee Scania to keep her laws and nationality. Part by part is Scania incorporated in the Swedish realm. De jure this was accomplished in 1721, however certain legal and cultural differences between Scania and the rest of Sweden would remain for centuries.

1811, June 15th
After a year of unrest among the Scanian peasants a thousand peasants had arrived at Klågerup's castle in western Scania to protest against the cruel noble master and against the calling up of new troops for the attack on Norway (with the failed wars of 1808/1809 in fresh memory, when the hastily summoned and barely trained soldiers died from hunger and freezing due to bad supply of food and tents). The threatening mob was driven away from the manor by military troops, and thereby 29 peasants were killed ( - this is the official figure, rumors say that most corpses had been taken care of by friends and relatives before the rest was counted by the military).

1857
The prohibition of books in Danish (or Scanian) is abolished.

1872
The flag used by the Arch-bishop during medieval times is re-invented and introduced as the National Flag of Scania.

 

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Sweden - >>


7.6.4 The flag

<This section by Malte Lewan>

Scania's flag The Scanian flag is red with yellow ribbons and is more square than both the Danish and Swedish ones. The measurements are based on the old (1748-1926) Danish measures for its flag. They are 3-1-4.5 in length and 3-1-3 in height.

The flag is most likely (though not proved) from the archbishop in Lund Andreas Sunesen (1201-1228) who then was archbishop for all of Norden. (But the country diocese ("landestiftet") where the Scanian law was in force was Skåneland). He got the flag pattern from (and used it on) a crusade in Latvia and a stay in Riga. The fact that the flag is like a Danish-Swedish combination with what could have been borrowed colors from these flags is a coincidence. The Swedish flag is younger.

The Scanian flag itself was probably pretty much forgotten (though other yellow-red symbols existed) until Mathias and Martin Weibull "reinvented" it around the end of the last century. First, it was used very sparingly but the use has grown and does so even today. But only outside one of the Scanian town halls, in Ystad, is the Scanian flag flying so far. It is more frequently used by the common people, depending on area in Scania. The Swedish flag is still more common in the province.

As late as in March 1992, the flag was registered in the Scandinavian Roll of Armor. At the same time, the Scanian coat of arms was registered: a golden panther on red background with hind legs like a lion and front legs like an eagle. The day of the Scanian flag is the third Sunday in July.


Sources: "Skånelands flagga", Sven-Olle R Olsson, 1993 Newspaper articles from "Sydsvenska Dagbladet", 1992-95



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© Copyright 1994-2001 by Antti Lahelma and Johan Olofsson.
You are free to quote this page as long as you mention the URL.
The line of flags is modified after a picture at det Åländska skoldatanätet.
This page was last updated June the 27th in the year of 1998.

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