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Norden after the Reformation (the s.c.nordic FAQ)
nordic flags
The home pages for the Usenet newsgroup soc.culture.nordic
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Norden after the Reformation

 

2.5.7 Modern Nordic history

Western Scandinavia 1536-1645

After a civil war 1534-36 the Hanseatic Leaugue lost its influence in the Danish realm. Lutheran Reformation follows. Norway is formally incorporated. Until the Thirty Years' War Denmark keeps her position as the leading power of Norden.

Eastern Scandinavia 1521-1560

Lutheran Reformation contributes to the creation of a National State in Sweden with a strong central administration and a king independent of the nobility and the pope.

Eastern Scandinavia 1560-1660

Territorial gains in Germany, the Baltic lands and in Scandinavia. The state administration gets controlled by the nobility.

The Thirty Years' War 1618-1648

The Thirty Years' War results in a radically weakened Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. After an unsuccessful mission in the early phase of the war Denmark keeps out of it, and does not gain any direct favors from Germany's weakness. Sweden have more luck in the war, and comes out of it as Europe's leading Lutheran Power.

Western Scandinavia 1645-1814

Denmark (with Norway) lose several provinces to Sweden, and after having been literally threatened by eradication in 1658 and having lost its richest province, Scania, the High Nobility is deemed unfit for governing the realm and Royal Autocracy is enforced. Denmark balances between revanchism and careful foreign policy aimed at peace with the strengthened Sweden. After several unsuccessful attempts to regain at least Scania, and after Sweden again is weakened after 1709, Denmark (with Norway) experience a peacful century until the Napoleonic wars hit also Denmark, leeding to Norway 1814 being ceeded to Sweden (75% of the realm's territory, however only a minute proportion of its population and tax-incomes).

Eastern Scandinavia 1660-1808

Successive losses of territories in south eastern Finland and outside of Fennoscandia. The nobility's position is step by step weakened. Royal Autocracy is enacted by the Estates in 1680. After the disastrous war with Russia 1700-1721 the government is taken over by the Estates, and then again in 1771-1809 succeeded by Royal Autocracy.

Nortern Scandinavia 1809-1918

Sweden lose the eastern half of the realm to Russia. Revolution in Sweden: Governmental power is shared by king and Estates. Finland as a Grand Duchy ruled by the Emperor of Russia gets isolated from the rest of Norden.

Rest-Sweden is in personal union with Norway 1814-1905, whereafter the union is peacefully abolished and Norway again a totally independent kingdom of its own.

Southern Scandinavia 1814-1901

Social, educational and constitutional reforms in Denmark. The Royal Authocracy is abolished in 1848. In 1864 also Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg are lost to Prussia.

20th century



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© Copyright 1994-2001 by Antti Lahelma and Johan Olofsson.
You are free to quote this page as long as you mention the URL.
The line of flags is modified after a picture at det Åländska skoldatanätet.
This page was last updated June the 9th in the year of 1998.

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